United Kingdom (UK) / Great Britain (GB)
The United Kingdom
Dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals, fossils, Charles Darwin, paleontologists, Natural History Museums, contributors to Paleontology and Paleoanthropology on stamps and postmarks of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in
western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland,
the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part
of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands.
Northern Ireland is the only part of the United
Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the
Republic of Ireland.
The country had an area of 242,500 square kilometres with an estimated
population of 65.1 million inhabitants.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance.
The capital of the United Kingdom and its largest city is London, a global
city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million.
The postal history of the United Kingdom is notable in at least two
respects - first, for the introduction of postage stamps in 1840, and
secondly for the establishment of an efficient postal system throughout
the British Empire, laying the foundation of many national systems
still in existence today.
Beginning in 1958, regional issues were introduced in the Channel
Islands, the Isle of Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
While these issues are only sold at post offices in the respective countries,
the Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh issues are valid throughout the United Kingdom.
The Channel Islands (since 1969) and Isle of Man (since 1973) now issue their
own stamps which are not valid anywhere else.
For every set of commemorative stamps Royal Mail issues multiple commemorative postmarks
in addition to a non-pictorial "First Day of Issue" postmark.
FDC with some of these pictorial-commemorative postmarks can be purchased in online-store of Royal-Mail as clean or addressed.
Addressed FDC sent to recipient inside of another envelope, perhaps to protect the FDC from any damage
underway. Due to this reason there are almost no addressed FDCs with additional postal cancelations
or traces of letter sorting machine on it, as it all left on the extra envelope.
Official stamps of the United Kingdom related to Paleontology: reconstructions and fossils of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals, paleontologists, paleoanthropologist, Charles Darwin
 In August 2008, Royal Mail
issued a set of 5 stamps: "150th Anniversary
of Dinosaurs' Identification by Sir Richard Owens
" in order
to commemorate great British paleontologist Sir Richard Owen
who defined the world Dinosaur
in English language in 1841.
He first used the name in a lecture to the British Association for the Advancement of Science
(Now the British Science Association) on Friday July 30th, 1841
Dinosaur fossils had been discovered many centuries earlier, but it took the genius of Richard,
the best British comparative anatomist of the time,
to unlock some of the mysteries of these early finds, which consisted only of odd teeth and bones.
Unfortunately, Sir Richard Owen did not appear on any of the stamps in the set,
but was honored with a reproduction of his image as the artwork on the official FDC.
In the same year, the book
“Dinosaur stamps of the world
” was published in the UK.
The book tell a story about Dinosaurs and its discovery but ans shows all stamps, miniature and souvenir sheets issued to date.
2.0In 1991 it was still possible to include it all in a relatively small book of 128 pages.
 The achievements of Britain's greatest scientists were commemorated by a set of stamps issues in August 1999.
Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin
and the biologists Crick and Watson
are the inspiration for the Scientists' Tale collection part of the Royal Mail's Millennium Collection marking
1,000 years of British achievements.
Charles Darwin is honored on other British stamps, including the 26p
"Darwin's theory", was designed by the wildlife artist Ray Harris Ching. "Darwin's
" rest next to a fossil of Archaeopteryx
embedded in a limestone matrix.
(also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group
of about fifteen species of passerine birds. They are well known for their
remarkable diversity in beak form and function.
Two of them are depicted on a stamp from 1982
: Cactus Ground Finch and Large Ground Finch
They were first collected by Charles Darwin on the Galápagos Islands during the second
voyage of the Beagle. These small sparrow-like birds have a bewildering
variety of beak shapes and sizes, and a
confusing similarity of plumage. The explanation for this variety may
be that the Galapagos Islands were originally colonized by a finch
species from nearby South America. As with the tortoises and the
iguanas, island races or species evolved from isolated populations.
In the finches things seem to have gone a stage further as the various
island finches seem to have reinvaded each other's islands leading to
competition and further modification to different feeding methods to
is a genus of bird-like dinosaur that is transitional between
non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds. Archaeopteryx lived in
the Late Jurassic around 150 million years ago, in what is now southern
Germany during a time when Europe was an archipelago of islands in a
shallow warm tropical sea, much closer to the equator than it is now.
The initial discovery, a single feather, was unearthed in 1860 or 1861
and described in 1861 by Hermann von Meyer, just two years after
publication of " On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection" by Charles Darwin (many stamps
across the world issued in 2009
to commemorate 150th
anniversary of the book) and was very strong
argument to support his theory. The fossil shown on the
stamps is. The fossil depicting on the stamp is the well known Berlin specimen
that was was discovered in 1874 or 1875 at the Blumenberg near Eichstätt,
Germany and is on show in Natural History Museum in Berlin.
The fossil also has appeared on two German stamps – one in 1973(GDR) and the second in 2011 (FDR).
shown on stamp on the bottom-right corner.
This portrait of Charles Darwin, the great scientist and author of On the
Origin of Species, is a copy by the artist of a portrait undertaken by
John Collier for the Linnaean Society. Collier was himself the
son-in-law of another prominent late Victorian scientist, Thomas Henry
Huxley. The portrait was presented to the Gallery by Darwin's eldest
son, William Erasmus Darwin, who wrote to Lionel Cust in 1896: 'The
picture is a replica of the one in the rooms in the Linnaean Society
and was made by Collier after the original. I took some trouble about
it and as a likeness it is an improvement on the original.' It shows
Darwin as an old man in the year before his death.
According to Darwin's third son, Francis, 'The portrait represents him standing
facing the observer in the loose cloak so familiar to those who knew
him and with his slouch hat in his hand. Many of those who knew his
face most intimately, think that Mr Collier's picture is the best of
the portraits and in this judgement the sitter himself was inclined to
 Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes
(15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist and campaigner for eugenics and women's
rights. She made significant contributions to plant palaeontology
and coal classification, and was the first female academic on the faculty
of the University of Manchester. With her second husband, Humphrey
Verdon Roe, Stopes founded the first birth control clinic in Britain.
Stopes edited the newsletter Birth Control News, which gave explicit
 2010 was the year of the 350th
anniversary of The Royal Society,
the world's oldest scientific academy in continuous existence.
In celebration, Royal Mail has today released ten 1st class commemoratives
featuring significant Royal Society figures whose portraits are paired
with dramatic and colourful imagery representing their achievements.
Two figures among the 10 depicted are related to the subject of this website:
: Alfred Russel Wallace
Wallace (1823 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer,
anthropologist and biologist. He is best known for independently
proposing a theory of natural selection which prompted the joint
reading of his and Charles Darwin's papers on evolution in 1858, and
spurred Darwin to publish his own theory the following year.
Wallace was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made a
number of other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory
besides being co-discoverer of natural selection. These included the
concept of warning colouration in animals, and the Wallace effect, a
hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by
encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization.
He also invented the science of Biogeography – which studies the geographic distribution of organisms.
: Sir Nicholas Shackleton
Sir Nicholas John Shackleton was a British geologist and climatologist who
specialised in the Quaternary Period
He was the son of the distinguished field geologist Robert Millner
Shackleton and great-nephew of the explorer Ernest Shackleton.
In 1967 Cambridge awarded him a PhD degree, for his thesis entitled
'The Measurement of Paleotemperatures in the Quaternary Era'. Shackleton
was a key figure in the field of palaeoceanography, publishing over two
hundred scientific papers. He was a pioneer in the use of mass
spectrometry to determine changes in climate as recorded in the oxygen
isotope composition of calcareous microfossils. He also found
evidence that the Earth's last magnetic field reversal was 780,000 years
Following in the distinguished footsteps of Eminent Britons in 2009 and
Britons of Distinction in 2012, the Royal Mail was delighted to
introduce the Great Britons Special issue, celebrating the
anniversaries of ten more people who not only achieved greatness in
their lifetimes, but also left behind a lasting legacy.
One of the persons who is commemorated on these stamps is Mary Leakey
(6 February 1913 - 9 December 1996) - an eminent archaeologist and
anthropologist, Leakey's discoveries were so significant that they
forced scientists to radically change many long-held views about human evolution
She discovered the first fossilized Proconsul skull
, an extinct ape now believed to be ancestral to humans.
She also discovered the robust Zinjanthropus skull at Olduvai Gorge
For much of her career she worked together with her husband, Louis
Leakey, in Olduvai Gorge, uncovering the tools and fossils of ancient
hominids. She developed a system for classifying the stone tools found
at Olduvai. She also discovered the Laetoli footprints. It was here, at
the Laetoli site, that she discovered Hominin fossils that were more
than 3.75 million-years-old. She also discovered fifteen new species of
other animals, and one new genus.
In 1960 she became director of
excavation at Olduvai and subsequently took it over, building her own staff.
After the death of her husband, she became a leading palaeoanthropologist
helping to establish the Leakey tradition in the field.
Mary died on 9 December 1996 at the age of 83, a renowned
paleoanthropologist, who had not only conducted significant research of
her own, but had been invaluable to the research careers of her
husband, Louis Leakey, and their sons, Richard, Philip, and Jonathan.
Official stamps of private post companies of the United Kingdom related to Paleontology and Paleoanthorology: Charles Darwin
[LN1] Down House
It is a part of exclusive range of "English Heritage" Stamps, these stamps highlight some our famous properties throughout England.
This stamps can be used to send postcards overseas from the UK, worldwide excluding UK and Channel Islands.
This booklet of five self-adhesive stamps is dedicated to Charles Darwin and his home in Down House.
Down House is the former home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his family.
It was in this house and garden that Darwin worked on his theories of evolution by natural selection which he had conceived in London before moving to Down.
Some other stamps of the United Kingdom to considery: contributors to Paleontology science, fossil found places, Natural History Museum
|16.02.1972 "British Polar explorers" [O1]
||14.01.1981 Booklet with definitive stamps [O2]
||19.03.2002 "Coastal landscapes" [O3]
|29.04.2003 "Extreme achievements in the 20th century" [O1]
||17.01.2017 "Prehistory and early history of Britain" [O4]
||14.01.2021 "National Parks"
[O1] Robert Falcon Scott
shwon on one stamp from the set
Robert Falcon Scott CVO (6 June 1868 – 29 March 1912) was a Royal Navy officer and explorer
who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery expedition of 1901–1904
and the ill-fated Terra Nova expedition of 1910–1912.
Scott and his companions died on the second expedition.
When Scott and his party's bodies were discovered, 16kg of Glossopteris tree
(an extinct beech-like tree from
250 million years ago) fossils
from Queen Maud Mountains found next to their bodies, which they had dragged
on hand sledges. These fossils promised to Marie Stopes
(shown on UK stamp in 2008
to provide an evidence for Eduard Suess
who suggested Antarctica had once been part of an ancient super-continent named Gondwanaland (now Gondwana).
More details are here
[O2] Building of Natural History Museum in London shown on the cover of the booklet.
[O3] Some fossil found places shown on the stamps.
[O4] The stamps set shows various scenes from a live of early Britons
from a glimpse of Stone Age ritual of 11,000 years ago, through the Bronze Age and into the Iron Age of some 300 BC.
All humans depicted there are of modern human species - Homo sapiens sapiens
Commemorative postmarks and meter franking of the United Kingdom related to Paleontology: reconstructions and fossils of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals, paleontologists, paleoanthropologist, Charles Darwin
Legend is here
[PM1] The meter franking from Great Britain Birmingham 1966 showing a Skull of Homo sapiens
and a stone tool probably a handaxe or a Neanderthal man Mousterian tool - Museum and Art Gallery
Some other postmarks and meter franking of United Kingdom to consider: slogans, Natural History Museums, contributors to Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, HMS Beagle
Legend is here
[PMO1] The Lochness Monster on postmark of UK 1991
The Loch Ness Monster, or Nessie, is a cryptid in cryptozoology and Scottish folklore that is said to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands.
It is often described as large, long-necked, similar to Plesiosaurus
Popular interest and belief in the creature have varied since it was brought to worldwide attention in 1933.
Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with a number of disputed photographs and sonar readings.
The scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a phenomenon without biological basis,
explaining sightings as hoaxes, wishful thinking, and the misidentification of mundane objects
- [R1] United Kingdom:
- [R2] Postal History and Philately of United Kingdom:
Links to official website of Post Authority, stamp catalog and list of new stamps of United Kingdom are here
many thanks to Dr. Peter Voice
from Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Western Michigan University, for the draft page review and his valuable comments.