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|ID||Michel: 289-291, Bl. 16 Scott: 181a-181b, 182 Stanley Gibbons: 233-235 Yvert: 226-227, 14 Category: pR|
|Stamps in set||3|
S45 - Iguanodon, Brachiosaurus and Rhamphorhynchid in background
S60 - Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus
T$2 - Plesiosaurus
|Size (width x height)||stamps 80 x 30.6 mm, Souvenir-Sheet 110 x 70 mm|
|Layout||Mini-Sheet of 10 stamps, Souvenir-Sheet with 1 stamp|
|Perforation||12 x 12¼|
|Print Technique||Offset, multicolor|
|Printed by||Walsall Security Printers of London, UK|
|Issuing Authority||Post office of the Government of Tonga|
|Dinosaurs on stamps of Niuafo'ou 1993, MiNr.: 240-241, Scott: 117B-117C|
Explosive volcanic activity - means the eruption of volcanic ash into the atmosphere, which then settles out as ash deposits around the volcano.
Effusive volcanic activity - the eruption of lava that flows down the sides of the volcano, eventually cooling to form lava flow deposits.
Plesiosaurus is a genus of extinct, large marine sauropterygian
reptile that lived during the Early Jurassic.
Plesiosaurus had a wide distribution in European seas and around the Pacific Ocean, including Australia, North America, and Asia.
Plesiosaurus lends its name to the order Plesiosauria, of which it is an early, but fairly typical member. It contains only one species, the type, Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus. It is known by nearly complete skeletons from the Lias of England.
|Plesiosaurus on stamp of UK 2013, MiNr.: 3535, Scott: 3237|
The first complete skeleton of Plesiosaurus was discovered by early paleontologist and fossil
hunter Mary Anning in Sinemurian (Early Jurassic)-age rocks of the lower Lias Group in December 1823.
Plesiosaurus swam by flapping its fins in the water, much as sea lions do today, in a modified style of underwater “flight.” The nostrils were located far back on the head near the eyes.
Plesiosaurus is distinguishable by its small head, long and slender neck, broad turtle-like body, a short tail, and two pairs of large, elongated paddles and were a moderately sized that grew to a length of about 3.5 meters. These marine animals had approximately 40 neck (cervical) vertebrae, with different specimens preserving 38 to 42 cervical vertebrae.
On the early reconstruction Plesiosaurus were shown with the neck in a swan-like pose above the sea surface; providing an extended reach or a swift strike at prey; or allowing breathing whilst the animal lay concealed at depth.
According to the last research, based on the anatomy of the articular faces of contiguous cervical vertebral centra, neural arches, and cervical ribs, the plesiosaur neck was mainly adapted for ventral bending, with dorsal, lateral and rotational movements all relatively restricted.
Plesiosaurus may have fed by swinging its head from side to side through schools of fish, capturing prey by using the long sharp teeth present in the jaws.
The neck of the animal was adapted for use beneath the body, suggesting feeding in the water column, close to the sea floor, or within soft sediments on the sea floor. Numerous features of plesiosaurs, including cranial and dental form, cervical vertebral morphology, body shape and limb-based propulsion, conform to this model.
|Plate Proof ||Monochrome Proof ||Mini-Sheet|
|FDC||Artwork (scan of another copy is here)|
|Cromalin Proof - Error ||Cromalin Proof - Corrected ||Plate Proof |
|Specimen ||Used covers|
The Cromalin Proofs are on thick cardboard and in full colour, a proofing method used by Walsall Security Printers in which full color proofs are produced directly from the color separations prior to final production of the printing plates. Each color is layered on top of the next thus building up to the full color design. As only 3 or 4 were done, cromalin proofs are quite scarce and have been in the archival material until now. These proofs are lovely looking, very high quality, with a glazed finish. And as only 3 or 4 were done, cromalin proofs are the scarcest of all proofing methods done by Walsall Security Printers for Tonga.
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